Synthesized from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/zone/zonehis.shtml
1870's and 80's Edit
- Residents 'protest loss of light and air as tall residential buildings begin to appear in Manhattan'
Early 1900's Edit
- Housing shortages, rush of immigrant populations, industry encroaching on private property
Tenement House Act implemented
- Height restrictions on residential buildings as a result of previous protests
Zoning Resolution implemented
- Established height and setback controls
- Designated residential areas be separated from other specific industries
Old resolution didn't address mass transit, automobiles, and increased use of new technologies. This also reduced the residential density capabilities of NYC, particularly at the edges of the city.
- Parking requirements
- Designated open space opportunities
- Said to have 'sometimes resulted in buildings that overwhelm surroundings'
- Incentive zoning
- Gave extra floor space bonuses for buildings to build public plazas
- Did not always provide public benefit (not always 'useful or attractive')
- Business districts
- High-rise office buildings were allowed large, open floors
Current attitude: flexible. 'Cities never stand still, nor should zoning.'
- Contextual zoning tools
- Preserves character of established neighborhoods'
- Specialized Districts
- Lower Density Growth Management
- Protects from rapid growth in outlying regions that have no access to public transit
- Inclusionary zoning incentives
- To provide for affordable housing
- Retrofitting to provide housing
- Dormant buildings transformed into housing to provide for increased density